Hastings Local Development Framework - Core Strategy Informal Consultaton 27 June - 8 August 2011
6.0 Draft Infrastructure Delivery Plan
6.1 The draft Infrastructure Delivery Plan (IDP) for Hastings supports the town’s Local Development Framework (LDF) Core Strategy, which covers the planning period from 2012 to 2028. At the time that consultation with infrastructure providers was undertaken it covered the period 2006 to 2026. This timescale has therefore been retained but will be updated at the first review of the IDP. The Core Strategy must be supported by evidence of what physical, social and environmental infrastructure is required to enable future growth and development to take place.
6.2 The provision of necessary infrastructure alongside new housing and employment development is required to create and maintain sustainable communities. Additional physical infrastructure in the form of utility services, transport, schools, open space, community, health and leisure services is necessary to support the expanding local population, create balanced growth and provide for those who visit or work in the Borough.
6.3 The IDP consists of a written statement and a schedule which identifies the key pieces of infrastructure that are required in Hastings; when they are required; who is responsible for their provision; their cost, if known and how they will be funded (Section 7). The IDP draws on, and influences the investment plans, of a wide range of infrastructure providers, including the Borough and County Councils. It will help to co-ordinate public and private investment in Hastings.
6.4 Hastings Borough Council is working with other Local Authorities in East Sussex to explore the implications of Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL) introduced by the Government in 2010. The IDP could be used to provide a basis to calculate appropriate charging mechanisms for CIL. This is a unit charge per dwelling or square metre of commercial development that will be applied to qualifying development under CIL.
6.5 The IDP has been prepared at a time of unprecedented change, with government spending cuts affecting the way that services are provided both nationally and locally and radical changes planned in services such as the NHS. This could have major implications for the way that essential infrastructure is provided in the future and the IDP Delivery schedule will be updated on an annual basis.
Objectives and outcomes
6.6 The Infrastructure Policy of the Core Strategy seeks to ensure that the right infrastructure is in place at the right time to meet the needs of Hastings. The main objective of the IDP is therefore to ensure that these infrastructure needs are identified in a structured way and that providers are clear as to their role in implementing the Strategy. The key outcome is a Delivery Plan which supports and underpins the implementation of the Core Strategy and helps to determine and co-ordinate the investment plans of infrastructure providers.
6.7 The Government’s policy on infrastructure planning is set out in Planning Policy Statement 12 (PPS 12), which highlights the importance of infrastructure planning to underpin the preparation of the LDF Core Strategy. PPS 12 states that the infrastructure planning process should identify:
- infrastructure needs and costs;
- the phasing of development;
- funding sources; and
- responsibility for delivery;
6.8 The approach taken in this IDP reflects the requirements of PPS 12.
The type of infrastructure covered by this IDP
6.9 The IDP addresses both physical and community infrastructure. Physical infrastructure includes transport, electricity, gas, water, communications, waste and flood protection. Community infrastructure includes open space, leisure facilities, education, community centres and health. It must be stressed that this Plan is only concerned with the infrastructure needs of the various infrastructure providers, not with the way in which they manage or operate their service.
The process of preparing the IDP
6.10 In order to inform the IDP, 45 infrastructure providers were consulted and asked a number of questions, to establish their existing requirements and what their additional requirements would be, based on the South East Plan target of 4,200 dwellings between 2006 and 2026. This figure has now been revised and the period extended to 2028 as set out in the “Future Housing Provision in Hastings” paper at Appendix A.
6.11 Where relevant, consultees were also provided with copies of the Council’s Strategic Housing Land Availability Assessment (SHLAA), which lists all potential housing sites within the Borough together with the best estimate of their capacity and when they are likely to be developed. We are still waiting to hear from a number of those contacted.
6.12 The IDP has also been informed by a Parks and Open Spaces Strategy prepared by the Council in 2006, it will also be informed by the outcome of traffic modelling currently being undertaken to assess the impact on the road network of levels of development proposed in both Hastings and Rother Core Strategies. The information provided by organisations has helped the Council to identify current deficiencies in the provision of social and physical infrastructure and the threshold levels in terms of housing numbers that would trigger a specific infrastructure requirement. The remainder of this document details the specific types of social and physical infrastructure that are required to deliver the LDF Core Strategy.
6.13 East Sussex County Council (ESCC) is the Local Education Authority and has a statutory duty to provide school places in the town. The Education Authority is responsible for running a Pupil Forecasting Model taking account of the projected level of housing growth, Office of National Statistics (ONS) Live Birth data and the County Council’s policy based population projections. The County Council updated the Model in March 2011 and the requirements set out below for primary and secondary education represent the position at that date. Early years and 16+ provision is still being assessed and the requirements set out below are based on the 2010 Model.
6.14 For the purposes of this IDP, new school place requirements are broken down into the following categories:
- early years provision;
- primary school places;
- secondary school places;
- further education provision.
Early years provision
6.15 For the purposes of this exercise, ESCC has adopted the same school planning areas are used for primary school planning. These are:
- Hastings South Western (SW) – including wards of Braybrooke, Central St Leonards, Gensing, Maze Hill, West St Leonards
- Hastings North Western (NW) – including wards of Ashdown, Conquest, Hollington, Silverhill, Wishing Tree
- Hastings South Eastern (SE) – including wards of Baird, Castle, Old Hastings, St Helens, Tressell
- Hastings North Eastern (E) – including Ore ward
- Hastings RC Schools – including all wards
6.16 Results from the last Early Years, Childcare and Extended Schools Service (EYCESS) Childcare Sufficiency Assessment 2008 and more current vacancy data have been used by the County Council to test the options to indicate where shortages of Early Year places are likely to occur. ESCC’s current capital projects for Early Learning provision are:
- Maplehurst Nursery – on-site relocation of 32 place provision.
- St Leonards Primary School – new 30 place Pre-school.
- Four Courts, St Leonards – relocation of 24 place Pre-school.
6.17 The early Years Capital Programme was completed on the 31st March 2011 and there are currently no Early Years funding programmes planned beyond 2011. As a result of the testing of the LDF proposals undertaken by ESCC, a need for an additional 2-3 forms of entry provision has been identified, 120-180 places in total to 2026. Hastings South West has immediate requirements for new places. Other areas would be phased depending on the timing of development. Provision is likely to be made in Hastings SW, NW or SE school place planning areas. Additional early years provision may be a mixture of the following:
- new buildings on, or the use of classrooms within existing school sites
- new buildings on development sites where provision of land under the LDF is likely to be required.
- seeking change of use for existing commercial or residential properties.
6.18 More detailed advice is awaited from ESCC.
Primary school places
6.19 We are having ongoing discussions with East Sussex County Council to determine future needs in terms of primary school places.
Secondary school places
6.20 Currently there are five secondary schools – William Parker (boys only), Helenswood (girls only), Hillcrest, Filsham Valley and The Grove. Expenditure on secondary school Capital Projects is subject to government spending reviews.
6.21 We are having ongoing discussions with East Sussex County Council to determine future needs in terms of secondary school places.
6.22 From academic year 2011/12, two new Academies will be created in Hastings. A planning application has been submitted for the redevelopment of the Hillcrest site to provide a new Academy.
Further & Higher education provision
6.23 Sussex Coast College Hastings has recently relocated to a purpose built campus at Station Plaza in the town centre with a subsidiary campus in the Ore Valley. In the next three years, the College will need to consider development of the fifth floor expansion space at Station Plaza to increase capacity.
6.24 The University of Brighton has a campus in Hastings at the University Centre in Havelock Road. The phase 2 expansion of the University – adjacent to Priory Square within Hastings town centre, is currently under construction, with an anticipated completion date of October 2011. The University considers the opportunity to have more dwellings in the town would be very helpful as they have the capacity to take more students. They are considering the development of the residential component of Station Plaza as student accommodation.
Sports and Leisure facilities
6.25 The Council’s £500,000 programme of refurbishment to Summerfields Leisure Centre and Falaise Fitness Centre has been completed, giving these facilities an additional 15 year lifespan. The Council has a 5 year contract with Freedom Leisure, to manage the facilities, which expires in 2016. The situation will be reviewed as we prepare for retendering the contract. The Council has an aspiration to build a new leisure centre but no funding has been identified at present. Further work is required to identify the need, shape and optimum timing of future Council provision.
6.26 The Council has a joint use agreement for the Sports Hall at Hillcrest .With the building of the new Academy, the Council will seek to re-negotiate the agreement. The Strategy review has not identified any further need for Sports Halls in Hastings.
6.27 The athletics track at William Parker Sports College requires significant investment, possibly £300,000, in about 5 years time to replace the aging track surface. No source of funding has yet been identified.
6.29 ESCC has a statutory duty to provide library and information services. Across the Hastings area it provides a variety of services via a network of static libraries, mobile libraries and a mobile office, as part of a county-wide library service. The construction of the levels of housing in the Core Strategy will have an impact on existing service delivery. Options for the most effective way to provide library services will be considered. The potential to provide access to services in different and innovative ways will be investigated. The Library and Information Service may also enter into partnerships with, developers, schools, community centres, retail centres and others.
6.30 The County Council has recently decided to upgrade and renovate the main library to incorporate the children’s library in Hastings town centre, rather than construct a new library.
6.31 Public art can play an important role in enhancing local distinctiveness and a sense of place. It can also benefit the local economy, by providing opportunities for local artists and local community involvement, and can also help to enhance the appeal of Hastings and St Leonards as a tourist destination.
10.6.32 Where major developments are proposed, the Council will seek a contribution towards art from developers. The nature of contribution will be negotiated with the developer and will take the form, either of provision for works of art or artists’ input to the building and its surroundings, or through a financial contribution towards public art works, art facilities or events. The type of public art and level of contribution will depend on the nature of the development proposal, the characteristics of the site and its surroundings. However, a nationally acceptable guideline is that it will be around 1% of the construction costs
6.33 Community facilities are being provided as part of the Stade development. Jackson Hall has been refurbished and now provides an administrative centre for the voluntary services in the town. The hall at Churchwood Primary School is used by the community in the evenings. There is a proposal to provide an additional mobile classroom on site for school use during the day and community use in the evening.
6.34 East Sussex Hospitals Trust has indicated that there is no requirement for additional land to serve the Conquest Hospital. In earlier consultations, the Hastings and Rother Primary Care Trust (PCT) advised that Hastings is currently underprovided in terms of GP services but that a planned network of 3 new primary care centres would overcome this shortfall and provide some additional capacity for future population growth. One centre has opened at Station Plaza, however with radical reforms to the way that the National Health Service operates planned by the Government, the need for future facilities will be assessed when the mechanisms for health premises are confirmed.
Adult social care
6.35 We are currently consulting with ESCC on future adult social care provision.
Electricity and Gas
6.36 The National Grid has a statutory duty to develop and maintain an efficient and co-ordinated transmission system of electricity and gas supply across the country. It does not have any transmission assets located within Hastings. Specific proposals within the area will not have a significant effect upon National Grid’s transmission infrastructure.
6.37 The electricity distribution company in the area is EDF Energy Networks. Because of the downturn in the economy they are forecasting very low growth levels over the next few years. Ofgen do not specifically allow the company to invest in infrastructure ahead of need. When new development proposals come forward the EDF Energy Projects Gateway Team will examine the proposals and provide an economic design for connection. The Developer is required to meet all appropriate costs in accordance with the current industry regulations.
6.38 Scotia Gas Networks are responsible for managing and maintaining gas supplies to Hastings, which is within the South East Local Distribution Zone. Although there are currently no specific capacity issues in Hastings, any new development will be assessed and where necessary reinforcement of the gas system may be required. Scotia Gas Networks also have an ongoing mains replacement programme and part of this programme is likely to involve significant investment in Hastings. We are currently awaiting further details of this investment from Scotia Gas Networks.
Water and sewerage
6.39 Southern Water Services (SWS) provide water and sewerage services in Hastings. SWS has undertaken an assessment of all of the sites in the Council’s Strategic Housing Land Availability Assessment (SHLAA). In terms of water supply, the vast majority of sites have existing distribution capacity available and connections can be made without any perceived major off-site investment or strategic capacity implications. The situation with sewerage disposal is rather different with the vast majority of sites having no existing sewer capacity available. SWS requires development to connect to a point where there is adequate capacity. This is outside the scope of planning policy and the formal requisition procedures set out in the Water Industry Act 1991 provide a legal mechanism for developers to provide the necessary infrastructure to service their sites.
6.40 Hastings is served by three telephone exchanges, one in the town centre and two significantly smaller ones in newer parts of the town. BT does not have any current plans for the central exchange in Havelock Road beyond those already agreed with the University Centre.
6.41 BT Openreach (the regulated arm of BT responsible for the telephone network) is currently rolling out a brand new fibre network to deliver SuperFast Broadband across the UK. Openreach has committed to delivering this new technology to 66% of the country. Although Hastings is not on the published list for deployment in the next 12 months, the town is at present being considered for inclusion in the 66% coverage area. Discussions with Openreach are ongoing to ensure Hastings inclusion. The issue of cable channelling will be addressed in the Site Allocations and Development Management Plan.
6.42 Because of the rapidly changing technology, it is not possible for mobile phone operators to give a clear indication of their infrastructure requirements in the medium to long term. The operators submit annual rollout plans to all local planning authorities, which give an indication of those additional sites each operator anticipates requiring over the next twelve months.
6.43 East Sussex County Council (ESCC) is the Waste Planning and Waste Disposal Authority for the Borough, with responsibility for producing the Waste Local Plan. HBC has responsibility for household and other municipal waste collection. The Borough is jointly responsible with ESCC for the recycling of household waste, but ESCC has direct responsibility for the provision and management of waste recycling sites. The current Household Waste Recycling Site (HWRS) is working over capacity. ESCC has planning permission for a new HWRS at the Pebsham Waste Transfer Station in Rother, which it is planned to build and commission in the next year. ESCC’s waste service forecasting includes for additional housing in the Hastings Area and its service provision is expected to meet the LDF potential housing provision. The new HWRS is considerably larger than the existing one.
Coast and flood protection
11 where the policy is to hold the line.6.44 The Council are responsible for coast protection, except for Bulverthythe, which has been retained by the Environment Agency (EA), who are also responsible for coastal flood protection. The EA has recently completed a scheme at Bulverhythe utilizing large rock revetments and will in future undertake routine maintenance work. The Council maintains the other defences in accordance with the Shoreline Management Plan
6.45 A concrete structures survey of the Promenade, commissioned by the Council in 2011, has identified that deterioration has continued at a significant pace in parts of the 1930s structures since the last survey in 2005. Substantial repairs will be necessary to prolong the life of the structures beyond the medium term. This work is currently being assessed and is not yet funded.
6.46 A Department for Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) funded survey of all coast defence assets in Hastings is being undertaken, with the exception of the Harbour Arm and groynes to the east. The report, which will take the form of a 25 year programme will be available in the autumn of 2011. Up to 2026 the replacement/refurbishment of timber groynes would be the priority to maintain levels of shingle at a cost £17million. The work, which is in the EA’s Medium Term Plan, would be 100% funded by DEFRA.
6.47 A DEFRA funded Coastal Pathfinder study of the impacts on the fishing fleet of climate change and possible solutions, including the Harbour Arm, is being undertaken by the Borough Council and should be available in Autumn 2011. Any work would be 100% DEFRA funded.
6.48 The Council has also obtained a grant of £100.000 to prepare a Surface Water Management Plan for the town. This is being reported to the Council’s Cabinet in summer 2011 and is not likely to identify any need for Capital Works.
6.49 In terms of water quality, the revised Bathing Water Directive requires much more stringent testing of bathing water quality than previously required. There is a risk that bathing water at Pelham may not meet these new standards unless improvements to surface water systems are identified and implemented by Southern Water. It is therefore important that we continue to work closely with Southern Water and the Environment Agency on this issue.
Open Space and Green Infrastructure
6.50 The Council’s 2006 Parks and Open Spaces Strategy specifies that the focus for the future will be to improve the quality and value of existing open spaces rather than establish new ones, with priority for sites within or adjacent to the most deprived neighbourhoods. The Council will seek planning agreements and development contributions in appropriate cases to secure the enhancement of existing open spaces. Where major new development is proposed in areas with no access to open space, new provision may be required.
6.51 Two major new open spaces are proposed - one in the Ore Valley and the other at Pebsham Countryside Park, which is mainly in Rother District. The Ore Valley Open Space proposals are linked to the wider regeneration plans for Ore, which previously enjoyed Millennium Communities programme status. Discussions are currently underway with the Homes & Community Agency regarding proposals for future phases of construction at Ore. The timing of the improvements to thegreen space will form part of these discussions as they are linked to future delivery of housing on the sites.
6.52 The creation of Pebsham Countryside Park is a priority for Hastings, Rother and East Sussex County Councils, and a Member-level Management Board, and other structures have been established to take this forward. These Councils, private landowners and others make various contributions to the project. In particular, ESCC holds £362,000 (as at Feb 2011), as a contribution towards the establishment of the park, from Southern Water as part of their Waste Water Treatment Works in the park area. The Board employs a Park Ranger. Discussions are on-going with Cinque Ports Rugby Club and may result in new pitches and a refurbished clubhouse at the Bexhill Road end of the Pebsham site.
Children’s play space
6.53 The Open Spaces Audit undertaken in 2005 found that the Council’s policy to provide fully equipped formal children’s play areas was not working well, and they were often underused and are expensive to maintain and manage. The preferred approach was adopted that there should be a relatively small number of large equipped play spaces at key locations around the town that are accessible to all. Developers will be required to contribute toward this provision.
6.54 In 2010 the Council undertook a re-audit of play facilities operated by HBC and Amicus Horizon. There has been considerable investment in recent years through government and lottery funding in the refurbishment and improvement of existing playground sites and the provision of an adventure playground in the Ore Valley. This improvement is reflected in the results of the audit. Nevertheless deficiencies were identified in a number of areas and some sites of poor value/ quality were identified for closure. As a result of the re-audit the Council has adopted a policy of providing good quality/value playgrounds within 600 metres of all households and to close poor sites that are within 600 metres of better quality/value provision. Developers will be expected to contribute to the improvement of existing sites close to new development or to the provision of new sites in areas of deficiency.
6.55 A network of green infrastructure is to be established in the town. This includes major open spaces such as Alexandra Park, the seafront, nature reserves, outdoor sports facilities, children’s’ play areas, allotments and cemeteries. Developments will be expected to contribute positively to the network. Two major pieces of green infrastructure are proposed in the town – Pebsham Country Park and the Ore Valley.
6.56 Our top priority for new road infrastructure is the Bexhill to Hastings Link Road, which is the responsibility of the County Council. As a result of the Government’s Spending Review, the Link Road is now in a Development Pool of 45 schemes. The Department for Transport (DfT) has indicated that there is £600 million available for Development Pool schemes, about half the funding necessary. The DfT is expected to make decisions on which schemes will go forward by the end of the year 2011.
6.57 In addition the Council considers the following road improvement schemes, which are the responsibility of the Highways Agency, to be important to reduce the isolation of Hastings:
- A21 Baldslow Junction
- A21 Tonbridge to Pembury
- A21 Kipping Cross to Lamberhurst
- A21 Flimwell to Robertsbridge
6.58 As a result of the Government Spending Review, with the exception of the A21 Tonbridge to Pembury scheme, all of the above A21 schemes have been cancelled. The A21 Tonbridge to Pembury scheme has been retained but no funding is allocated before 2015. Kent County Council has approached the Government to discuss the possibility of it being brought forward.
6.59 The County Council wishes to safeguard the route for the Hastings Spur road Phase 2, until the Bexhill to Hastings Link Road has been operational for at least a year.
6.60 We have identified the following rail schemes as being important:
- upgrading of Ore Station
- Ashford to Hastings line capacity improvements
- Hastings to Tonbridge capacity Improvements
- development of a new station at Glyne Gap
6.61 Network Rail, who own, maintain, develop and operate Britain’s rail infrastructure, have indicated that they believe that there is sufficient capacity on the Coastal route and the route towards London via Tonbridge to cater for the increased local and commuting demand created by 3,516 houses. The strategy for these routes is to deliver incremental capacity and capability enhancements, such as improved journey times. They have however indicated their willingness to engage with Kent County Council to fund a study into route enhancements on the Ashford to Hastings route. Southern Railway, one of the Franchise holders operating on the coastal route, considers that the additional dwellings will have a small positive impact on their services through increased commuting. They will also benefit from a small number of additional off peak leisure and business journeys.
6.62 Stagecoach, one of the main bus operators in the Hastings area, considers that they can accommodate the greater demand arising from the potential 3,516 dwellings through incremental growth, such as the provision of larger vehicles and increased frequencies. However, most new developments do require some level of revenue funding for bus services to ensure that a level of service sufficient to attract new residents before the site is fully developed. Bus subsidies are the responsibility of the County Council. Rambler Coaches, another operator in the town, have indicated that they would benefit from the additional dwellings which would mean more students to take to college.
6.63 Neither Stagecoach nor Rambler Coaches have any new fixed infrastructure needs in Hastings.
12 with ESCC and Stagecoach.6.64 As part of the potential packageof Link Road complementary measures, the County Council proposes to improve the facilities for busesrunning alongthe A259 Bexhill Road corridor between the two towns. Hastings Borough Council is also part of the Quality Bus Partnership
Local sustainable accessibility improvement contribution (LSAIC)
13.6.65 New development may need to make a LSAIC contribution towards relevant Local Transport Plan (LTP) packages, providing small scale local transport improvements aimed at making the development more sustainable in transport terms. There is a scale of charges, depending on the type of development, set by the County Highway Authority
Pedestrian and cycle routes
6.66 A strategic network of cycle and pedestrian routes, linking communities with green infrastructure, the seafront, the town centre etc. will be achieved in the plan period by a combination of public and private investment and developer contributions. The Council will also support the extension of the existing National Cycleway Network along the seafront. SUSTRANS and ESCC are jointly responsible for the provision of the section of the Network between Bulverthythe and Glyne Gap at a cost of £800,000. The Council are responsible for the provision of the section between Robertson Street and the Old Town at a cost of £5,000.
6.67 We are awaiting a response to our enquiries from the Police.
6.68 We are awaiting a response to our enquiries from the Ambulance Service.
Fire and Rescue service
6.69 The East Sussex Fire and Rescue Service has recently commissioned a study of the short, medium and long term needs for all fire stations within their area. Hastings has two fire stations, a main station on Bohemia Road and a second station on The Ridge. The study does not identify any need to upgrade or relocate either station in the short term (2010-2012). It does however recommend that the possibility and benefits of the amalgamation of the two stations on a new site is investigated in the medium term (2012-2018).
6.70 The infrastructure identified in the schedule in section 7 will be delivered in a number of ways. In some cases it will be the sole responsibility of the infrastructure provider. In others it may be funded by the co-operation of a number of partners. The schedule identifies responsibility in each individual case. In appropriate cases the Borough Council will use its powers under Section 106 of the Town and Country Planning Act 1990 to secure developer contributions. Since the coming into force of the national Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL) there is now a legal requirement for contributions to meet the following tests:
- necessary to the development in planning terms;
- directly related to the development;
- fairly and reasonably related in scale and kind to the development.
6.71 This limits the range of infrastructure for which Council’s can seek developer contributions. After 2014 the range will be limited even further, basically to on-site infrastructure.
14.6.72 One of the problems that Hastings faces is that land values are relatively low and the amount that individual developments can contribute to is low compared with other parts of the South East. Both the County and District Council have adopted Supplementary Planning Guidance (SPG) on developer contributions
6.73 The County Council’s SPG “A New Approach to Development Contributions” applies a tariff based structure to secure developer contributions to County Services. The SPG mainly adopts a threshold of 15 dwellings and above. Below that contributions are not normally required, except for LSIAC where a threshold of 5 or more dwellings has been adopted. Contributions are also required from certain larger commercial developments.
15. Because of the low land values in Hastings referred to above, the SPG sets out the Council’s priority order for development contributions. These are:6.74 The Council has not adopted the County SPG but in 2004 adopted an SPG of its own “Development Contributions”
- essential on-site infrastructure
- essential off-site infrastructure
- affordable housing
- sustainable transport
- all other infrastructure
6.75 It is intended to produce a new Supplementary Planning Document (SPD) in the light of the Infrastructure Delivery Plan.
6.76 Should the Council decide to implement CIL locally, this would replace developer contributions under Section 106 except for specific items of on-site infrastructure. CIL is therefore included in the Infrastructure Delivery Schedule as a possible alternative to Section 106 Agreements.
6.77 Progress on the implementation of the Infrastructure Delivery Schedule will be monitored as part of the Council’s Annual Monitoring Report.
9 www.hastings.gov.uk/sport/sports_pitches_courts.aspx 10 www.hastings.gov.uk/regeneration/public_art.aspx 11 www.hastings.gov.uk/conservation/conservation_coastal.aspx 12 A Quality Bus Partnership (QBP) provides a forum where all the stakeholders with responsibilities that impact on the quality of bus service delivery agree common objectives and take responsibility for those factors under their control. Typically, QBPs include commitments by bus operators on the introduction of low floor buses and, often, service improvements; by the local authority on infrastructure improvements; and by the police or local authority on enforcement. 13 www.eastsussex.gov.uk/environment/planning/development/newapproach/downloadsa.htm 14 www.eastsussex.gov.uk/environment/planning/development/newapproach/default.htm 15 www.hastings.gov.uk/local_plan/default.aspx#lp_spg